Scenario Based Urban growth Simulation Model (SUSM) for Smart Cities
Lakshmi Kantakumar N. PhD Scholar, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Institute of Environment Education and Research, India
Shamita Kumar, Professor, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Institute of Environment Education and Research, India
Karl Schneider, Professor, Institute of Geography, University of Cologne, Germany
The smart city initiative by the Government of India has spurred massive investment into technological and infrastructural development in existing cities with the goal of making them more adaptable thus smarter, livable and sustainable. However, developing a 'smart' city should be based on understanding, conceptualizing and modelling the drivers of urban development and thus on analyzing the past and present development to assess pathways for future development as well as impacts of development plans and policies. The rapid growth of Indian cities often outpaces the traditional urban planning process. Thus, today's planners need 'smart' tools that enable analyses based upon a solid understanding of the dynamics of urban growth processes, up to date spatial data and technologies, which allow building and assessment of development scenarios. To this end, we developed a scenario based urban growth simulation model (SUSM). The SUSM can be used as experimental laboratory by the planners and policy makers to test their ideas as scenarios to design dynamic and vibrant development plans. The SUSM is developed based on machine learning algorithms and constrained cellular automata as an extension to ArcGIS.
Lakshmi kantakumar N. is a PhD scholar of Institute of Environment Education and Research, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University. He is currently focusing on development of scenario based urban growth simulation model for his doctoral degree.
Quantified Cities Movement: Practicing Participatory Urban Planning with Geospatial Technology
Aditya Sathe, Project Planner, Centre for Development Studies and Activities (CDSA), Pune, India
Lawrence Siddhartha Benninger, Project Planner, Centre for Development Studies and Activities (CDSA), Pune, India
Aneeta Gokhale Benninger, Executive Director, Centre for Development Studies and Activities (CDSA), Pune, India
Quantified Cities Movement (QCM), owned and created by the Centre for Development Studies and Activities, Pune, is a decision support system which aims to improve transparency and accountability in urban planning and management. Using geospatial technologies, open-source databases and a few spatial analytics algorithms, it enables citizens and lawmakers to make evidence based decisions and policy through real time mapping and analysis of urban stresses and potentials. The QCM mobile application 'iNagrik', enables location and time specific data collection for a variety of 'quality of life' indicators. The QCM analytics framework enables us to analyze and present the collected data through live, online, ward level maps and reports. The QCM framework is also a data repository giving us the ability to do spatio-temporal analysis. Using the open source database provided by Open Street Maps, QCM has created various maps which are easy to understand by citizens and lawmakers. With the help of geofencing, QCM is able to rout the information of a particular indicator to the respective department of the city administration at the electoral ward, administrative ward as well as city level. QCM finds geospatial technology as a cornerstone for participatory, decentralized urban planning and management.
Civil engineer and GIS analyst working as a Project planner at Centre for Development Studies and Activities (CDSA), Pune
GAO-FEN satellite remote sensing of water quality: a case study in a small tidal urban river of Pearl River River, South China
Shuisen Chen, Professor, Guangzhou Institute of Geography, China
The urban rivers are generally narrow, and it is difficult to map their water quality by popular middle resolution satellite sensors like Landsat sensors (~30m). Using the in-situ spectral measurement and quasi-synchronous Chinese GAO-FEN satellite data combing with the standard normal variate of spectra, the spectral and remote sensing models of water quality (TN,TP, N=18) were examined. The correlation coefficients of total nitrogen content and chlorophyll content of water body were -0.79 (sensitive band at 523nm, ) and 0.76 (sensitive band at 709nm ) respectively. On this basis, support vector machine and partial least squares were used to develop Quantitative model of total nitrogen and chlorophyll parameters in key water quality of Zhongshan City, and were applied in GAO-FEN satellite sensor by corresponding spectral response function. The result of Gaofen satellite mapping showed the new-type high resolution satellite can retrieve the two water quality parameters with good accuracy, being able to reflect the different pollution degree due to tidal effect at two ends of urban river.
A Study of Need of Transit Oriented Development in Bhopal (M.P.)
Rupali Khare, Student, IIT (ISM), India
Supriya Kumari, Student, IIT (ISM), India
Dr. V.V. Govind Kumar, Assistant Professor, IIT (ISM), India
Dr. Devarishi Chaurasia, Assistant Professor, SPA, Bhopal, India
As the cities are experiencing rapid growth, level of urbanization rising much faster than its total population. Bhopal is competing with the fastest growing city in India. The urban population of Bhopal is nearly 1.79 million (2011) is poised to 2.5 million in 2030 (www.cencus.gov.in). Urbanization has led to horizontal growth of cities thus creating problem of urban sprawl. This has resulted in increase of trip length and higher use of private vehicle ,deterioration in environment, congestion, low quality of lives, loss of neighborhood, traffic accidents, poor market shares of transit due to economically unfavorable settlement structure, dangerous condition for bicyclists and pedestrian and increased demand of infrastructure, to address this issue internationally many cities have transit system like BRTS ,MRTS etc are implementing to cater the growing travel demand. Public transportation is one of the most important component of urban transport system, particularly in pace of rapid urbanization in Bhopal city. Today in the city, the usage of Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS) is progressively step by step looking for cost effective transit solutions and for environmental concerns. But the problems faced by the users to use this system are poor accessibility status, lack of integration of parking facilities and pedestrian unfriendly. For effective planning, it is quite essential to understand the Barrier in smart growth. A sustainable strategy is required to maintain the economic growth and alleviate the problems arising due to the growth. Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is an admitted tool to implement Smart Growth and Sustainable Development. It refers to a form of urban design that achieves moderate to high density, mixed use, pedestrian friendly type of development close to transit service. Hence, TOD has become a popular planning response to the impacts on urban growth. ArcGIS is a useful tool to analyze large amounts of information through different layers and provide a structured, traceable, and flexible analysis. To analyze the level of service (LOS) of TOD, it is important to have a base map and attribute data corresponding to different areas in the base map. ArcGIS could help us understand the characteristics of each area (each census tract, specifically) and thus determine which area is most suitable for TOD. The paper focuses a GIS-based study on the need of Transit oriented development in Bhopal. And also discuss the causal effects of urban sprawl on quality of life of resident.
1. I published a research paper 'REIS-A SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR LAND VALUATION' in national symposium of ISG.
2. I published a research paper 'REIS-A SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR LAND VALUATION' in 'Journal of Geomatics' (JOG).
3. I presented a Poster Presentation on 'Decadal Study of Land surface temperature for Urban Heat Island Phenomenon over the National Capital Region, India''
Digital Spatial Experience of Medieval City in Present-Day Context
Pallavee Gokhale, Independent Researcher, India
Digital archival of the geographical context of the historic past is one of the most important applications of spatial technology. It not only adds a new dimension to the documentation, it also creates a foundation for 3D visualisation. This project is aimed at creating a walk-through experience of medieval era Pune, a city in India with a current population exceeding three million. Its implementation in a GPS-enabled mobile device simulates a Google maps-like navigation experience through the historic city. The overlay of historic landscape on the present day city creates a composite picture of the past and the present. Part of this mapping is transformed into 3D visualisations. Although paper maps are information-rich to begin with, there is still scope to augment them by adding additional features and attributes in both space and time.
In addition to this data collected for the project, more information is expected to be gathered through crowd-sourcing. The mobile app is built with this requirement in mind. This enables the collection of data that is often passed through generations as folklore and, when presented suitably, enriches the total experience of the user. The current sources of information include maps, gazetteer volumes, survey reports and books. The historical period covered ranges from the early 18th century to the late 19th century, a period ruled by the Peshwa dynasty. The data collected for the project reveals the exemplary planning and public utility work done by the royal dynasty. Finally, the project demonstrates how open source technologies can be used to great advantage in developing countries for presenting and preserving digital heritage cost effectively.
Independent researcher in GIS, Archaeology | Software Quality consultant. M.A. Archaeology, Deccan College, Pune, India
2016: H.D. Sankalia Gold Medalist - M.A. Indology: Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, Pune, India
2008: First Class CSTE Certification in Software Testing: QAI Global Institute
2008: M.Sc. Remote Sensing with GIS: University of Greenwich, UK.
2002: B.Sc. Geography: Pune University, India
2001: 12 Years of work experience in GIS and Software Quality Engineering
Interests - Archaeology, GIS, Mapping, Remote Sensing
Automation of Disaggregation of Land Surface Temperature by Development of an IDL Widget Application
Naomi Lemuel, Student, Institute of Remote Sensing, Anna University, India
V.M. Bindhu, Project Associate, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Balaji Narasimhan, Associate Professor, Indian Institute of Technology Madras
Vidhya Venugopal, Professor, Sri Ramachandra University
An IDL widget was developed to automate the Non-linear Radiant Temperature Disaggregation (NL-DisTrad) algorithm. It allows an end-user to input the mandatory GeoTIFF bands from Terra-MODIS and Landsat-7 ETM+ sensors. The widget automatically processes them and disaggregates the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) (spatial resolution 960m) to that of ETM+ at 60m. The NL-DisTrad algorithm uses the relationship between NDVI and LST at a coarse resolution, for hot edge pixels. Using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model, the residuals obtained at the coarse resolution are modelled and the resulting residuals are added to the disaggregated LST at a fine resolution. The ANN model uses NDVI of neighbourhood pixels, as it is assumed that the LST of a pixel will be influenced by the vegetation in surrounding pixels. This hybrid model (Hot edge model + ANN model) is validated by comparing the automatically disaggregated LST to the observed ETM+ LST. Some satellites do not carry thermal sensors, but can provide fine resolution NDVI. As this widget requires only LST and NDVI datasets at coarse resolution, it may be used to disaggregate the MODIS temperature data to a resolution comparable to that of other bands' reflectance datasets.
I am presently pursuing M.E in Remote Sensing and Geomatics, with a CGPA of 10. I completed B.E. Geo-informatics with a CGPA of 9.15. I was awarded a DAAD-WISE Scholarship (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst German Academic Exchange Service - Working Internships in Science and Engineering) to undergo internship at the University of Kiel, Germany. I am an avid learner, passionate to enhance my skill in development of geo-spatial technology for application in various fields.
Application of Geo-Spatial Technology in identifying Transitional Charlands in achieving Food Security
Md. Zahid Hasan Siddiquee, GIS & RS Specialist, Institute of Water Modelling (IWM), Bangladesh
Md. Ashraful Islam, Junior GIS Analyst, Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) , Bangladesh
AZM Nazmul Islam Chowdhury, Head of Extreme Poverty Programme, Practical Action, Bangladesh
Dr. Mollah Md Awlad Hossain, Director, ICT- GIS Division, Institute of Water Modelling (IWM) , Bangladesh
Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) Technologies has great opportunities to utilized the Free and Open Source Satellite imageries. The main objective of the project was to analyze satellite imageries for a certain period in order to find Sandbar (i.e., Sandy Charlands) in the project area. The demographic analysis has also been carried out to observe the impact on the beneficiaries living close to the identified sandbar areas. It has been observed that Permanent charlands and potential transitional riverine sandbar is about 2709 Sq. Km. For different time spans, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient has been found as 0.89 which represents a strong positive linear relationship between area and time, which represents that sandbar is in increasing trend. The result of this study could be useful for different groups of professionals including policy makers in order to utilize transitional sandbars for growing suitable crops. They can also be used for grazing lands for animal husbandry. The study this way can contribute to the sustainable development through ensuring food and nutrition security for the poor people living in the project area by utilizing transitional sandbars.
Mr. Zahid Hasan Siddiquee has been working as GIS & RS specialist in Institute of Water modelling since 2009. He has completed his bachelor in Urban & Regional Planning from BUET (2002). He completed an M. Sc. In Photogrammetry & Geo-informatics from the Stuttgart University of Applied Sciences, Germany (2006). Besides has completed a Post Graduate Diploma in River Basin Management (RBM) from CDDET Foundation, Madrid, Spain (2014).
Multi-temporal mapping of urban growth in the Greater Suva Urban Area, Fiji Islands, using remote sensing indices
Dr Nathan Wales, Lecturer in Geospatial Sciences, The University of the South Pacific, Fiji Islands
Suva is the largest city in the southern Pacific Ocean, with a population of more than 300,000 people. Urban growth in Suva is constrained by its geography, being located on a coastal peninsula and with a significant neighbouring delta. Despite this, the population in Suva is predicted to grow by more than 10% from the years 2011 to 2021. Indices calculated from remotely sensed imagery provide insight into multi-temporal urban land cover pattern and extent in Suva. Band differencing including the normalized difference built-up index (NDBI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and are used in this research to investigate recent patterns of urbanisation in Suva, with the results providing insight into future patterns of growth. Three Digital Globe images from 2009, 2013 and 2016 have been used to map urban growth. Different patterns of urban growth are revealed at different locations within the Greater Suva Urban Area (GSUA). Results reveal that positive NDBI indicates increasingly dense and more extensive growth in built-up areas, however the form this growth has taken is less clear. The results of the NDVI analysis, together with unsupervised classification of the most recent image provide further insight into the patterns of growth identified.
Dr Nathan Wales has research interests in geospatial data analysis and modelling of landscapes using GIS and remote sensing. He is interested in mixed-methods research, premised on the integration of multiple forms of data to understanding problems in geography. He is also interested in the application of indicators to support effective long-term monitoring of changing landscapes. He has several years' experience in conservation and geographic information science in Australia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific.
Administrating railway gatepost using geointelligence and IOT
Yashi Agrawal, Student, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
Rohan Agarwal, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
Yaggesh Sharma, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India
Indian Railways is one of the chief sector for the growth of modern India. Its network comprises of 119,630 km of total track and 92,081 km of running track in which currently there are 30348 level crossings. The schedule of Individuals who have to cross the gatepost get affected by closing and opening time of these railway crossings. Medical sector is one of the major sector that is pretentious by this problem, also employees of other fields. Usually, ambulances get stuck for hours and have to wait to pass the railway crossline and general people also get late due to it. The idea which we are presenting through this paper is to attach the sensors on the railway gatepost which will detect the timings of closing and opening of the gatepost and the schedule will be created for that particular railway crossing .GIS based applications like GPS & GSM & position sensor based intelligent equipment can avail train running position which can be coupled with appropriate satellite based services. And there is also the need to implement IPv6 across IR network. Using the Internet of things and mapping technology this data will be uploaded to a particular app through which people will get the timings beforehand so either they can choose any alternative path or can go little earlier. This paper will present the concept, examples and will discuss the benefits and outlook of this idea.
An Application of Open GIS for Unsealed Gravel Road Maintenance in Local Government: A Case of Toowoomba Regional Council in Australia
Bibek Timalsina, Student, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
Dr Dev Raj Paudyal, Supervisor, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
Dr Nateque Mahmood, Co-Supervisor, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia
Geographic Information System (GIS) plays a key role in today's best management practices of infrastructure asset management including roads. In Australia, there are three levels of government and local government is the custodian of maintenance of gravel roads. Local governments are struggling to maintain gravel roads due to low budget and lack of affordable decision making tools that help to prioritise the gravel roads that require immediate maintenance. Proprietary GIS software and tools are used in most of the municipalities and local councils. Due to the open data policy of Queensland government and freely available open source GIS tools, it is necessary to explore the suitability and effectiveness of open GIS tools to manage local government infrastructure assets and resources. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of open GIS for unsealed gravel road maintenance in local government. Toowoomba Regional Council of Australia was taken as a case. Both primary and secondary data were collected to create spatial database. The primary data were collected from field using hand-held GPS and secondary data were collected from Toowoomba Regional Council and Bureau of Metrology. Five major defects of gravel roads (condition of pothole, corrugation, embedded stone, drainage, cross-sectional profile, rutting, and scouring) were considered as specified by the Australian Road Research Board in to assess the existing condition of gravel road in Toowoomba Regional Council. The overall condition was estimated by adding the condition of defect which was multiplied by its weightage score. Gravel loss was predicted using prediction model developed by Transport and Road Research Laboratory (TRRL). Open GIS tools were used to create the prioritise maintenance map based on rate of predicted gravel loss and the spatial data was integrated with google maps. In addition to this, GIS was also used to visualise the different maintenance strategies which were developed based on the defect condition. It was found that Open GIS tools can be used to manage local government infrastructure including gravel roads.
Dev Raj Paudyal is a Lecturer in the School of Civil Engineering and Surveying, University of Southern Queensland (USQ), Australia. He has a M. Sc. Degree in Geoinformation Management (GIM2) from ITC, the Netherlands and a Doctor of Philosophy from University of Southern Queensland (USQ), Australia. Dev was Research Scholar (2015-2016) at Graduate School of Design, Harvard University. He has more than 20 years of professional experience and approximately 40 research publications. Dev is currently the individual member representative and director at Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association (GSDIA) Board, Past President of International Geospatial Society (IGA), Co-chair of International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Technical Commission WGIV/6, member of Mixed Methods International Research Association and registered Graduate Surveyor at Surveyors Board of Queensland (SBQ), Australia. Dev's research interests lie in the areas of cadastral, land and geographic information systems, land administration, spatial data infrastructures, disaster management, urban planning including informal settlements, and application of GIS in Civil Engineering.
Use of GIS in Location-Based Decisions of Infrastructure Facilities in Hilly Regions
Dr. Satish Kumar Katwal, Head, Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Engineering College Kangra, India
Dr. V. K. Bansal, Associate Professor, NIT Hamirpur, India
Topography impacts location-based decisions (LBD) of infrastructure facilities in hilly regions. Traditional and CAD-based systems used in LBD do not consider topography. Generally, construction professionals decide the locations of infrastructure facilities manually on the basis their past experiences which results variations in LBD. Basically, LBD involve comprehensive evaluation of a given hilly region by collecting, analysing, and refining information where infrastructure facilities are to be located. The present study illustrates the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in modelling the topography of region for locating infrastructure facilities at appropriate locations. A GIS-based framework was developed for analysing a hilly region for locating proposed infrastructure facilities of Jawaharlal Nehru Government Engineering College (JNGEC) Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh in India as a case study.
Head School of Architecture, Rajiv Gandhi Govt. Engg. College, Kangra at Nagrota Bagwan
Ph.D. on 'GIS-Based Methodology for Safe Site Selection and Construction Site Layout Planning in Hilly Regions', under the guidance of Dr. Vijay Kumar Bansal, Associate Professor, NIT, Hamirpur, INDIA.
M.Tech. in 'Construction Technology and Management', project with the guidance of Prof. Sanjeev Aggarwal, GZSCET, Bathinda
B. Architecture project with the guidance of Prof. Geetha K., Department of Architecture, Govt. Engg. College Trivandrum, Kerala